If you want to move the contents of one geodatabase to another database on the same Microsoft SQL Server instance, you can create a second geodatabase and move the data. If you want to move the geodatabase to a new SQL Server instance, you can move the whole database using one of several options available through SQL Server.
Move data to another geodatabase on the same SQL Server instance
Database and geodatabase names must be unique within the same SQL Server instance; therefore, if you want to move your data to a different geodatabase on the same instance, create a second geodatabase on the instance and move your existing data to the new geodatabase. You can move the data in ArcGIS by copying and pasting it, using the Export tool, using the Extract Data wizard, or using XML workspace documents.
Be aware that the user logged in when loading the data to the new geodatabase will own the data. If you want the data to have the same owner in the new geodatabase, have each user move his or her own data.
Move a database to a new SQL Server instance
If you want to move a geodatabase to a new SQL Server instance, you can create a geodatabase on the new instance and move data as described in the previous section, or use SQL Server tools to move the entire database. Options to move a SQL Server database include detaching the database file from the SQL Server instance and attaching it to a new instance, creating a backup of the database and restoring it to a new SQL Server instance, or using the Copy Database wizard.
No matter which of the methods you use to move your SQL Server database, you cannot rename the database. When you restore a database, for example, you are given the opportunity to restore it with a different name. Don't do this with a geodatabase; you won't be able to connect to it.
All object names in the geodatabase system tables are fully qualified with the database name. In addition, many stored procedures use a three-part naming syntax in their code, which follows the format <database>.<owner>.<object>. If the database name changes, you will not be able to execute these procedures.
For details and instructions on using SQL Server tools to move databases to a new instance, consult your SQL Server documentation.