One of the simplest ways you can add new datasets is to right-click the geodatabase in the Catalog tree and click New. Select the new dataset type that you want to create from the list.
You can link to a selected topic below to learn more about working with each dataset type in the geodatabase.
New Dataset Types to Create
A collection of features of the same type (such as wells, parcels, and streets) with a common set of attribute fields
A set of thematically related feature classes (typically used to manage a topology, network, or terrain)
Attribute tables used for many purposes
Used to create an association between records in one table and records in another
A single raster or image data layer covering an extent
An organized collection of images such as a series of image tiles covering an area
A dataset of features with addresses and rules for geocoding against the features
A series of user-created geoprocessing tools, scripts, and models